Author Guide


Manuscript Structure

Manuscript literature and tenses must be structured as Title, Authors affiliation with Orcid and E-mail, Abstract, Keywords, JEL classification codes, Introduction, Literature Review, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Author Contributions, Institutional Review Board Statement, Funding, Acknowledgement, Informed Consent Statement, Data Availability Statement, Conflicts of Interest and References. Submitted in a file with a limited size.

Language and numbers

Please write your text in proper English; American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of both. When writing numbers, use a period, not a comma, to represent the decimal point and a space to separate numbers of more than five digits into groups of three, whether on the left or the right of the decimal point (i.e., 10000.471 85, but 1000.4718). We only accept manuscripts written in English.

Length of Paper

Papers between 3,000 and 10,000 words are preferred.



Be concise and informative. The title is often used in information-retrieval systems and should be no more than 30 words in length and not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. If you choose to have a subtitle, it should be italicized and centered directly below the main title.

Authors’ Names and Affiliations

The preferred form of an author’s name is first name, middle initial(s), and last name; this form reduces the likelihood of mistaken identity. To assist researchers as well as librarians, use the same form for publication throughout your career; that is, do not use initials on one manuscript and your full name on a later one. Determining whether Juanita A. Smith is the same person as J. A. Smith, J. Smith, or A. Smith can be difficult, particularly when citations span several years and institutional affiliations. Omit all titles (e.g., Dr., Professor) and degrees (e.g., PhD, PsyD, EdD).

The authors’ affiliation identifies the location of the author(s) at the time the research was conducted, which is usually an institution. Include a dual affiliation only if two institutions contributed substantial support to the study. Include no more than two affiliations per author. If an author has no institutional affiliation, list the city and state of his/her residence. The names of the authors should appear in the order of their contributions, centered between the side margins. For names with suffixes (e,g., Jr. and II), separate the suffix from the rest of the name with a space instead of a comma. Only provide a complete mailing address of the corresponding author for correspondence.


Anne Smith (a)1    Mary A. Meade (b)  David Wolf (c)    Charles Rockefeller  (d)    Anne Jee (e)

(a)Professor, School of Management, Northern Canada University, Toronto, Canada; E-mail:

(b) Professor, School of Economics, Peking University, Beijing, China; E-mail:

(c) Professor, School of Management, Northern Canada University, Toronto, Canada; E-mail:

(d) Professor, School of Management, Northern Canada University, Toronto, Canada; E-mail:

(e) Professor, Professor, School of Economics, Peking University, Beijing, China; E-mail:

ORCID iD URL (  ORCID iD URL is mandatory for all authors.

Note: 1 correspondent author


General Rules for text

Please use the following rules for the entire text, including title, abstract, keywords, JEL Classification Codes, headings, and references. Font: Times New Roman; Size: 10pt.

Paragraph      Spacing:       Above       paragraph—0pt.;     below paragraph— 0 pt. Line Spacing: Single, 10pt.

Title: Times New Roman; 16 pt.; Bold (UPPERCASE) Heading 1: Times New Roman; 10 pt.; Bold; for example First-Level Heading (UPPERCASE)

Heading 2: Times New Roman; 10pt.; Bold; for example Second-Level Heading (Capitalize Each Word)


A concise and factual abstract is required. It should be 200-250 words. The abstract should state the purpose of the research briefly, design/methodology/approach, findings, research limitations/implications, originality/value, the principal results, and significant conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should therefore be avoided, but, if essential, they must be cited in full in the abstract without relying on the reference list. Font: Times New Roman; Size: 7.5 pt.


Immediately after the abstract, provide 3-5 keywords in alphabetical order, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (e.g., “and,” “of”). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.

JEL Classification Codes: Please provide 3-5 JEL classification codes, separated by comma (,) These codes will be used for indexing purposes (


The text size of equations should be similar to the normal text size. The formula should be placed centre justified with a serial number on the right. For example:




Number tables consecutively by their appearance in the text. Place a table's caption above the table's body and its description below the body. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

For example:

Table 1. Estimated Distance (cm) for Letter and Digit Stimuli














Note. CI=confidence; LL=lower limit, UL=upper limit.

Source: Authors Calculation/If any You may resize the tables to fit the page size.

Figures and schemes

Number figures consecutively by their appearance in the text. Place a figure's caption and description below the figure body. A minimum resolution of 300 DPI is required. You may resize the figures or schemes to fit the page size.

Note. Avoid abbreviating the titles of tables, figures, and equations (i.e., Tab.1, Fig.2, and Eq.3) in the caption or in running text. Do not write "the table above/below" or "the figure on page 32," because the position and page number of a table or figure cannot be determined until the pages are typeset.

Author Contributions: Conceptualization, A.S. and A.J..; Data Curation, A.S., M.A.M., C.R., and A.J.; Methodology, A.S., M.A.M., D.W., and A.J.; Validation, A.S., M.A.M., C.R., and A.J.; Visualization, A.S., D.W., C.R., and A.J.; Formal Analysis, A.S., D.W., C.R., and A.J..; Investigation, A.S., D.W., C.R., and A.J..; Resources, A.S., D.W., C.R., and A.J..; Writing – Original Draft, A.S., M.A.M.,C.R., and A.J..; Writing – Review & Editing, A.S., M.A.M., C.R., and A.J..; Supervision, A.S., D.W., C.R., and A.J., Software, A.S., C.R., and A.J..; Project Administration, A.S., M.A.M., and A.J.; Funding Acquisition, A.S., M.A.M., D.W., C.R., and A.J. Authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Institutional Review Board Statement: Ethical review and approval were waived for this study, due to that the research does not deal with vulnerable groups or sensitive issues.

Funding: The authors received no direct funding for this research/ Identify grants or other financial support (and the source, if appropriate) for your study; do not precede grant numbers by No. or #.

Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement: The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to restrictions.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.



Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition to crediting the ideas of others that you used to build your thesis, provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not considered common knowledge.

Citations in the Text

Each reference cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. However, two kinds of material are cited only in the text: references to classical works such as the Bible and the Qur’an, whose sections are standardized across editions, and references to personal communication. References in a meta-analysis are not cited in-text unless they are also mentioned in the text.

When formatting an in-text citation, give, in parentheses, the last name of the author of the cited work and the year it was published. For unpublished or informally published works, give the year the work was produced. Write “in press” in parentheses for articles that have been accepted for publication but that have not yet been published. Do not give a date until the article has actually been published.

In all other instances, citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association.


  • A Work by Two Authors

Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text; use the ampersand in the parentheses.

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports... (Wegener & Petty, 1994)

  • Three or More Authors

Use the first author’s last name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Harris et al. (2001) argued... (Harris et al., 2001)

  • Authors with the Same Last Name

To prevent confusion, use first initials when citing two or more authors with the same last name. (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

  • Unknown Author

If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and Web pages are put in quotation marks.

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers.

Note: In the rare case that “Anonymous” is used for the author, treat it as the author’s name in parentheses and the reference page.

(Anonymous, 2001)

  • Organization as an Author

If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

According to the American Psychological Association (2000), ...

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets behind the full name of the organization the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

Citing and Listing of Web References

As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information (author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), if known, should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or they can be included in the reference list.

Reference List

Please find the below information for basic rules in a reference list.

  • Each entry in your reference list should be defined by a hanging indent of two
  • Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work if it has three to seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author’s After the ellipses, list the last author’s name of the work. Use “&” instead of “and” when listing multiple authors of a single work.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each
  • If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the
  • Capitalize all major words in journal
  • When referring to any work that is not a journal, such as a book, article, or Web page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound

DOIs in References

The journal/publisher encourages authors to cite those items (journal articles, conference proceedings, book chapters, technical reports, working papers, dissertations, etc.) that have DOIs. When the cited items have DOIs, the authors should add DOI persistent links to the regular references. The DOI persistent links should be the last elements in the references. The persistent links should be active.

Format of persistent link:

Example of persistent link:

The authors or editors may retrieve articles’ DOIs at

You can register a free account to start retrieving articles’ DOIs. CrossRef allows you to check multiple references. Please read this webpage very carefully. Only articles with assigned DOIs can be retrieved through this webpage.

References Examples Books

Book with one author

Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Atheneum.

Electronic book

Replace place-of-publication and publisher information with the DOI.

Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., & Buckley, K. E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents:                                        Theory,          research                  and             public      policy.


Note: Insert a blank space if you need to break a URL across lines before most punctuation. Do not add a period after the URL.

Work with two authors

Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Two or more works by the same author

Arrange by the year of publication, the earliest first.

Postman, N. (1979). Teaching as a conserving activity. New York, NY: Delacorte Press.

Postman, N. (1985). Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business. New York, NY: Viking.

If works by the same author are published in the same year, arrange alphabetically by title and distinguish the documents by adding a lowercase letter after the year of publication as indicated below.

McLuhan, M. (1970a). Culture is our business. New York, NY:

McGraw-Hill. McLuhan, M. (1970b). From cliché to archetype. New York, NY: Viking Press.

Book by a corporate author

Associations, corporations, agencies, government departments, and organizations are considered authors when there is no single author.

American Psychological Association. (1972). Ethical standards of psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

A book with no author or editor listed

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

A translated work and/or a republished work

Laplace, P. S. (1814/1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.).

New York: Dover.

Anthologies, Course Packs, & Encyclopedias

Anthology or compilation

Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth.

San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Work in an anthology or an essay in a book

Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III, &

  1. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Work in a course pack

Goleman, D. (2009). What makes a leader? In D. Demers (Ed.), AHSC 230: Interpersonal communication and relationships (pp. 47-56). Montreal, Canada: Concordia University Bookstore. (Reprinted from Harvard Business Review, 76(6), pp. 93-102, 1998).

Article in a reference book or an entry in an encyclopedia

If the article/entry is signed, include the author’s name; if unsigned, begin with the title of the entry

Guignon, C. B. (1998). Existentialism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy (Vol. 3, pp. 493-502). London, England: Routledge.


Article in a journal––for articles retrieved online

Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910- 924.

Note: List only the volume number if the periodical uses continuous pagination throughout a particular volume. If each issue begins with page 1, then list the issue number as well.

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal:                                                               Practice              and                                  Research,                45(2), 10-36.

Articles in a journal, more than seven authors

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A 1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249- 267. 080/1462220041 0001676305

Article in a newspaper or magazine

Semenak, S. (1995, December 28). Feeling right at home: Government residence eschews traditional rules.

Montreal Gazette, p. A4.

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. Driedger, S. D. (1998, April 20). After divorce. Maclean’s, 111(16), 38-43.

Article from an electronic source

Zhao, S., Grasmuck, S., & Martin, J. (2008). Identity construction on Facebook: Digital empowerment in anchored                                              relationships.     Computers                in                       Human       Behavior, 24(5),                       1816-1836.

URL for an online periodical:

Cooper, A., & Humphreys, K. (2008). The uncertainty is killing me: Self-triage decision making and information availability. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(1). Retrieved from

Cress, C. M. (2009). Curricular strategies for student success and engaged learning [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved   from                            


Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses

Unpublished theses and dissertations

Jordan, J. J. (2005). Psychosocial effects of gifted programming (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Berg, D. H. (2003). Prospective leadership development in colleges and universities in Canada: Perceptions of leaders, educators and students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Electronic theses and dissertations

Hiebert, R. W. (2006). The education of children from poverty: A descriptive case study of a public school and a community school (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertation & Theses: Full Text (NR18185).

Richet, E. (2007). The citizenship education system in Canada from 1945-2005: An overview and assessment (Master’s thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada). Retrieved from

Meetings and Symposia

Proceedings published in a book form

McKay, G. (1999). Self-determination in Aboriginal education. In L. B. Muller (Ed.), Changing the climate: Proceedings of the 1998 Conference for Graduate Students in the Social Sciences and Humanities (pp. 1- 11). Saskatoon, Canada: University of Saskatchewan.

Proceedings published regularly online

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593-12598.

Paper presentation or poster session

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information                     Systems,                                   Miami,                 FL.                     Abstract     retrieved             from


Television or radio program

MacIntyre, L. (Reporter). (2002, January 23). Scandal of the century [Television series episode]. In H. Cashore (Producer), The fifth estate. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Film, video recording or DVD

Kubrick, S. (Director). (1980). The shining [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.

Online lecture notes and presentation slides (such as Moodle)

Cress, C. M. (2009). Curricular strategies for student success and engaged learning [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved   from                            


Web pages

Web pages and non-periodical documents on the Internet

Library and Archives Canada. (2008). Celebrating women’s achievements: Women artists in Canada.

Retrieved from

Geography of Canada. (2009, September 29). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from


Please avoid using footnotes. Change footnotes to endnotes. Insert "(Note 1, Note 2)" in the running text and explain the note in an endnotes section after the references page.


The appendices come after the references and the notes. In the text, refer to appendices by their labels: e.g., produced the same results for both studies (see Appendix A and B for complete proofs).